Located in the Dehesa de la Herrería (Herrería Meadows), to the west of the Monastery, Gabriel de Bourbon, son of Carlos III, commissioned the architect Juan de Villanueva in 1771 to carry out the work on the Upper Pavilion. Its purpose was to allow him to enjoy his greatest interests, among which were music, and to permit him to have a private life, in the company of his circle of friends and away from the protocol that surrounded the palace.
The building was inspired by Italian villas and its use was purely recreational. It is a concentrated and free-standing construction, surrounded by architecturally-designed terraced gardens, which create a sensation of unity, being related to the building.
The main room boasts a dome decorated with allegoric paintings relating to music. This was the listening room, the musicians being placed in the upper part and their music being heard from the small, central square in the garden.
From the garden, there are marvellous views of the Monastery.
His Majesty King Juan Carlos I was the last member of the Royal Family to reside in the building, living there over the period when he studied the area of Law. This building was declared a Historical Artistic Monument in 1931, along with the Monastery.